Aktualisiert: Mai 10
In this article you will learn how to create your own nutrition plan based on your macronutrients using the free app "MyFitnessPal". It is very easy and takes only a few minutes to set up. You should have read Nutrition Basics 1.0 before if you don't have any basic knowledge about the topic. So nothing stands in the way of your bikini figure in summer.
Now we looked at the last article "Nutrition Basics 1.0" to see what calories, macronutrients and micronutrients are. We also briefly discussed how carbohydrates, proteins and fats are structured and what effect they have on the human body. This article shows what foods should be consumed in the practical world to achieve a complete and healthy diet. With the help of the app, you can also create a nutrition planner in a few minutes, based on your individual goal (losing or gaining weight) and the time period. Protein sources (vegetable): Pulses (e.g. peas, beans, lentils) Quinoa Soya products Hemp Spirulina Chia seeds Nuts (at the same time a good source of fatty acids) Amaranth vegan protein shakes: soya, pea, rice, hemp, beans Protein sources (animal): meat Fish Eggs Dairy products (low-fat curd cheese, milk, yoghurt, whey) Protein Shakes Biological value and completeness of the amino acid profile As mentioned in previous sections, the decisive factor is how complete the amino acid profile of a protein is and whether all essential amino acids are included. What percentage of a protein the body can convert into the body's own protein depends on the biological value of a product. When research on the biological value of a product was started, it was discovered that the whole egg can be 100% converted by the body into the body's own protein. As a result, from now on the whole egg was used as a reference value for the table. Subsequently, other animal and vegetable protein sources were also assigned a value that describes how valuable the protein is for the body (1).
When whey protein was introduced to the market, it was found that it even had a higher biological value than a whole egg, which explains the value (higher than 100). Some foods can be cleverly combined, which can also lead to a value of over 100, which could be very interesting for vegans, for example. As a single source of protein per se, there is currently no other source that has a higher biological value. Example combinations of vegan protein sources with high biological value and complete amino acid profile: Rice with beans Hummus with wholemeal Noodles with nuts (peanut sauce) Wheat with corn Whole grain toast/whole grain bread with nut butter Soya products with rice or wholemeal The question of how much protein one should consume per day has been the subject of numerous studies and thus a great deal of controversy. In the beginning you should ask yourself what your goal is, because protein intake differs greatly from whether you are or want to be a recreational athlete, track and field athlete or professional bodybuilder. When doing strength training with the aim of building up muscles (hypertrophy training), it makes sense to exercise in the range between 1.4g and 1.8g protein per kilogram of body weight (3). Small calculation example: Assuming you weigh 60kg and want to build lean muscle mass, you should generate a daily protein intake of 96g at a value of 1.6g protein multiplied by your body weight. Scientific studies have shown that the lower the body fat percentage in a diet, the more protein you should consume to protect muscle mass. It has been found that ambitious bodybuilders in a longer dietary phase could show a higher muscle protection, a higher degree of satiation was achieved and due to the thermal effect, even with an excess of calories due to excessive protein intake, little to no fat mass was consumed (3)(6)! This can be a challenge for many athletes in everyday life, which makes a Protein Shakes a real helper, as one shake (with a portion of 30g protein powder) already contains 20-25g of protein. Therefore it is recommended to consume about 25g of protein at each meal to get the protein biosynthesis going (4). From a scientific point of view, there are no really significant studies on this yet, which prove that "protein timing" has a real effect on muscle building. It is recommended to build up your protein intake around your training, which means that you should consume protein, e.g. in the form of a protein shake, about 1-2 hours before training and after training (5). However, there are two facts about timing in the studies: It definitely can't hurt to have your protein intake around training and in the best case the right timing will lead to an increase in muscle mass. In the worst case, timing has no striking positive effect and it makes no difference. What makes a significant difference is how much protein you consume throughout the day, what the biological value of the protein is and how complete the amino acid profile of the meal you eat is. The biological value is a measure of how efficiently proteins from food can be converted into the body's own protein. The whole egg serves as a reference value for this, as it can be 100% converted into protein by the body, which is discussed in more detail in the next section. Healthy vegetable fatty acids: Nuts Avocado Monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. rape oil, nut oil, olive oil) Frying oils (saturated fatty acids): e.g. sunflower oil, coconut oil (enjoy in moderation) Cocoa (antioxidant and mood-lifting) Linseed, Chia seeds (polyunsaturated) Healthy animal fatty acids: Fatty fish: For example salmon, mackerel, eel, herring Make sure you eat mostly monounsaturated fatty acids (10-13% of the diet), polyunsaturated fatty acids (7-10%). For omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, the ratio is crucial. Omega 6 should be in a ratio of 5 to 1 to omega 3 fatty acids. According to the DGE, up to 10% of saturated fatty acids should be included in the diet, with athletes usually aiming for a maximum of 5%. The DGE (German Nutrition Society) stipulates that 30-35% of calories should come from fat. The DGE also recommends that the majority of your diet should consist of dairy products and cereals... Athletes are advised to get 25% of their calories from fat sources, as the protein and carbohydrate levels are higher in this group of people. Another guideline in the literature is 0.8 - 1.0 gram multiplied by body weight. Example: With a body weight of 60kg and the value 0.9 60 x 0.9 = 54 grams of fatty acids per day Good carbohydrate sources with a high fibre content Potato, sweet potato Rice Oatmeal Wholemeal products (wholemeal pasta, wholemeal bread, wholemeal flour etc.) Vegetables also belong to the group of healthy carbohydrates, but usually have a very low calorie and carbohydrate content Fruit Carbohydrates, together with fibre, make up the rest of your available calories. This means that if your dietary plan calls for 2000kcal per day and you get 25% of your calories from fatty acids and 25% from protein, you should fill your remaining calories (50%) with carbohydrates. A guide value for fibre is approximately 0.5 x body weight. MyFitnessPal calculates the recommended amount of fibre automatically. A little caution is required here, because: Fibre is important for your digestion. If you consume too little, you will not have a healthy bowel movement. If you consume too much (>1.0g x body weight) this can have a laxative effect. Summary: The protein intake in your diet should be between 1.4 and 1.8 grams multiplied by body weight. This is approximately 20-25% of your calories. Fat intake should be between 0.8 and 1.0 grams multiplied by body weight or 25-30% of your nutritional energy. Carbohydrates are the VARIABLE part of your diet. They are the adjusting screw at which you turn in a calorie-reduced diet. Most of the time, the fatty acids and protein quantities are retained and the carbohydrates are reduced to lose weight or increased if you want to gain muscle/weight. Creation of your nutrition plan with MyFitnessPal This app is free and allows you to track your calories. Especially if you have no sense of how many calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids a food has, it makes sense to track your macronutrients for a few weeks (at least 4). It's definitely not healthy and not sensible to make this a part of your life for several months/years, but it's just a surefire tool to achieve your goal. I would really advise you to try it for at least a month. Furthermore you are welcome to work on a gut feeling basis if you think that you can reach your goal by estimating and doing sports without consulting your mobile phone and the app. In practice, this does not work because people who have problems losing weight often think that they are not eating enough calories and still cannot lose weight. These people often underestimate their "snacking", drink high-calorie drinks and this only turns out to be true if you follow the calories for a certain time. On the other hand, there are the so-called "hard gainers" who have problems gaining weight although they eat "a lot" every day. This is also a myth, as the term "soft-gainer" or "hard-gainer" does not exist in the real world. Hard gainers simply do not snack enough and drink too few calories. These people simply have to do exactly the opposite of so-called soft gainers, namely consume their calories in the form of shakes / drinks and include regular snacks. But now to the plan: 1.) Download the app
2.) Define your goals
3.) Less is more: Better to gain or lose weight in small steps. Losing weight too quickly leads to a rebound effect and putting on weight too quickly causes you to build up more fat than muscles. Best is 0.2 kilograms plus/minus or maximum 0.5 kilograms plus/minus per week!
4.) Click on "MORE" bottom right
5.) Click on "GOALS" in the left bar
6.) Click on "Calorie, Carbs, Protein and Fat Goals" under the item "Nutrition Goals
7.) Here you can now change your macronutrient distribution. Remember: Protein: Target body weight x 1.6g, e.g.: My target weight is 100kg, so 100 x 1.6 = 160g Fat: For the "Weight Loss" target, take the value target body weight x 0.8; For the "Weight / Muscle gain" target, you can simply select 30% or 0.9 - 1.0 x body weight. Carbohydrates take up the rest of your calories and for most people should be between 45 and 55%.
8.) On the "+" - button in the bottom middle you can add food. These are stored and can be used again every day. You can also create dishes, e.g. your 3 favourite breakfast variations and then retrieve them every day at the touch of a button without having to search for them again. Very practical is also the scanner function, where you can scan the barcode of a product. Personally, it has never happened to me before that MFP has not found a food product.
TAKE HOME MESSAGE The app is actually self-explanatory, as long as you know what to do. Just calculate your protein and fat intake, download the MFP app and you're ready to go. When choosing carbohydrates, make sure you eat complex carbohydrates, lots of vegetables and fibre. You should avoid sugar and only get it from fructose sources. With proteins, the completeness of the amino acids and their biological value are important. Vegans need to pay more attention to the combination of certain protein sources in order to get a complete protein. For fatty acids, care should be taken not to consume trans fatty acids and low saturated fatty acids. The majority of the fatty acids should consist of simple and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The topic is very comprehensive and particularly for Veganer and vegetarians very important, why I would write an independent article to the topic fats and fatty acids. I really encourage you to try this app and tell me about your experiences before you do.
If you have now been given your calories, e.g. 2500kcal per day, then you should try this for a week and see what happens. If your goal is to lose weight, and after a week you have actually reached your goal of 500g weight loss per week, then you are on the right track. If you have a fitness tracker, e.g. a Fitbit, you can also use it to monitor your excess calories or deficit of 500kcal. Example: MyFitnessPal gives you 2500kcal and you want to gain weight. Your fitness tracker tells you at the end of the day that you have burned 3000kcal. This means that you are in a calorie deficit of 500kcal per day and would reach your goal. Even if you don't have a fitness tracker, you should regularly stand on the scale, take pictures of yourself and measure your arm, leg, stomach, chest and buttocks. Caution: If your goal is to lose weight and you have been eating very poorly in the last few months and are currently changing your diet, you will lose a lot of water in the first week and should not let this irritate you.
References: (1) Jeremy M. Berg et al. (2018): Stryer Biochemie. 8. Auflage. Springer Spektrum, Berlin / Heidelberg (2) Elmadfa, Ibrahim (2009): Ernährungslehre. 2. Auflage. Stuttgart: Eugen Ulmer (3)HELMS, R. ERIC et al. (2013): A Systematic Review of Dietary Protein During Caloric Restriction in Resistance Trained Lean Athletes: A Case for Higher Intakes: URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257350851_A_Systematic_Review_of_Dietary_Protein_During_Caloric_Restriction_in_Resistance_Trained_Lean_Athletes_A_Case_for_Higher_Intakes (4) Deutz NE, et al. Clin Nutr. (2013): Is there a maximal anabolic response to protein intake with a meal?: URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23260197/ (5) CONTRERAS, BRET (2014): Why You Don’t Really Need A Post-Workout Protein Shake: https://bretcontreras.com/why-you-dont-really-need-a-post-workout-protein-shake/ (6) Jäger R. et al. (2017): International society of sports nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition: https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8